For visualization of the posterior part of the eye, often termed the Fundus.
Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA)
For a more detailed examination of the fundus with particular attention to the blood vessels. FFA requires an intravenous injection of a dye. This is followed by photography of the fundus. FFA is particularly useful in vascular diseases of the retina like Diabetic Retinopathy and vein occlusions.
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
This technique allows examination of the retina in much greater detail, so to say at a microscopic level. Used to study the macula, the optic disc and the Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer (RNFL), it is invaluable in conditions like macular oedema, retinal dystrophies and degenerations, etc.
Gives a 2-D or cross-sectional image of the entire eye-ball. It helps in detecting complications like intra-ocular tumours, Retinal Detachment, swellings of the choroid and retina, etc.
Anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) injections may be required in some patients of macular oedema and in case of profound neovascularization.
For the surgical management of conditions like peripheral retinal breaks and tears. It may even be required in painful blind eyes.
The Argon laser is used for photocoagulation of the retina in conditions like Diabetic Retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion, etc.
The vitreous humour is a transparent jelly-like fluid that fills the interior of the back of the eye. Vitrectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of this fluid. It is performed using sophisticated instrumentation through very tiny incisions on the sclera, which forms the white part of the eye. These incisions may not even require to be sutured. Vitrectomy may be performed for a wide range of disease conditions- retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, removal of intra-ocular foreign bodies, in cases of intra-ocular infection, etc.